terça-feira, 8 de junho de 2021

Europe - a continent that turns into a peninsula

We have become used to considering Europe as a continent. What if the political and economic realities transform it from an American dependency to an Asian peninsula?

1 - The European Union of inequalities

In advanced capitalism, with a neoliberal profile, borders are seen as obstacles that can make it difficult for goods to be processed. And the internet has exponentially facilitated contacts in general, capital operations and speculative dementia in particular. As for human beings, things are somewhat different; Citizen cards, passports, visas, residence permits and … in progress, a certificate on the situation vis-à-vis covid-19 will be required.

The EU intended to be a factor of homogeneity in terms of rights and usufructs in the sense of facilitating exchanges between member countries, as a response to the great rivalry that emerged from World War II, between the North Americans and the Soviets. Initially, the political and economic differences between its members were not many until the integration of Greece (1981) and the Iberian countries (1986), with degrees of economic development clearly inferior to the founders. Later, with the inclusion of the countries that left Comecon and the bloody dismemberment of Yugoslavia, inequalities within the enlarged EU grew substantially, presenting huge pockets of potential emigrants destined to work in the richer countries, desertifying and aging their countries of origin, taken as labor exporters. Like the Levels of training in these countries are among the highest in Europe (especially in the East) and, with this training being paid for by the families of the countries of their origin, it is immediately seen that those who will benefit from the qualification of these emigrant workers are the rich countries, with enough money to pay salaries that are not practiced in the countries of origin. As these inequalities are of interest to contractors (rich countries) and contractors (workers from poor countries), to speak of social and territorial cohesion within the EU is a lie consolidated over time.

The godly goal of unification and solidarity has not been fulfilled. Countries or regions in the process of population regression and those that attract population are perfectly visible , although in the EU there is not only migration between member states but also of people from abroad. For example, Turks go to Germany, Moroccans to Spain, Indians and Pakistanis to Great Britain, Brazilians to Portugal…

The richest countries saw the poorest countries integrated in the EU as interesting destinations for investments, taking advantage of low local wage levels and, in many cases, linked to high educational levels (especially in the former Comecon countries); in these territories there were people eager for consumption and well-being, ready to work and improve their lives.[1] . On the other hand, the integration of these countries would work as a model for the consolidation of centers and peripheries, with these orbiting countries with greater economic, demographic or financial strength; a model of spatial and economic reorganization, generating inequalities that are of interest to be permanent, namely in the chapter on labor prices. All, however, well camouflaged in a language of egalitarianism that reality proves to be false; registering among the peripheries cases of some success, such as total failure.

All this architecture is well wrapped up in legal texts, extensive and detailed, which clearly show the difficulties for countries that want to go back, leaving the Union; notwithstanding the obvious disaster of an exit for any member state with lesser status, especially if included in the euro area[2] . Great Britain managed to leave but took with it problems that jeopardize the continuity of its peripheral parts – Scotland and Ulster – leaving Greater London to royalty as a powerful financial center linked to the numerous offshore points spread across the planet. The viability of the exit of unstructured, poor countries, with trade largely carried out within the EU and dependent on community support, is doubtful. The EU replicates in its midst the inequalities typical of the federated states; in the US the differences between Florida and West Virginia are stark; in Brazil, the state of São Paulo has an income capitation three times higher than that of Ceará; in Spain, income in the Community of Madrid is double that of the poorest autonomy (Extremadura); and in Portugal, the North region presents an income slightly above 2/3 of that registered in Lisbon and Vale do Tejo. In short, the EU replicates the social and economic inequalities existing in all nation-states and these will never disappear in a framework of capitalist competition; the global management of the current pandemic reveals to the full the differences that capitalism generates and sustains. Cooperation and mutual help give better results than the insanity of accumulating capital to infinity.

If initially, the CEE countries had approximate income levels and productive structures, after the entry of Greece into the then CEE, things changed with the inclusion of that poor country, with very different production structures and incomes; and followed by the Iberian countries, etc. As is evident, the political classes of the less developed countries, eager to become the link and protagonists of a corrupt absorption of community funds, did not bother to consult the populations on the acceptance or not of such a geopolitical change. On the contrary, they made full use of what they could and some became “entrepreneurs” benefiting from the good connections within the PS/PSD party-state, in the Portuguese case. The so-called international investors know that they have to pay a specific fee for any business with a country where corruption is natural, and they try to hire authorized intermediaries – law firms.

Where a political plan of territorial, political and well-being cohesion was affirmed, in reality there was only a hierarchy of countries with different levels of political, commercial and technological power, competing with each other to take advantage of the community funds that would make it possible for capitalists from the richest countries to invest in the less rich ones, with the lowest salary levels, also giving scope for the application of these funds in accordance with the interests of the party mafias, national or local authorities. Europe of Regions, does anyone remember?

In reality, the poorest countries remain at the bottom of the hierarchy, with the EU remaining a union of unequals.

In this context, there is a “specialization”. EU countries with more powerful economic structures and productive specializations with greater technological content tend to focus on trade relations with a wide range of countries, mainly on exports – this is the obvious case for Germany. Countries with less advanced specialization patterns tend to focus on the production of goods with lower technological content, such as agricultural or tourist products, with the richest countries in the Union as buyers. And, in the case of agricultural export products, there is no shortage local mobsters for the integration of non-community immigrants under substandard conditions and wages .

2 - The EU at the global level

At the end of World War II, Europe became a politically and militarily shared area. In the western part, the presence of North American troops would be aimed at defending against any Soviet advance; and, to this end, NATO was created in 1949, to which Greece and Turkey joined in 1952. In response, in 1955, the Warsaw Pact emerged, covering the countries with a Soviet model, led by the USSR. A segmented, bipartite Europe, forced to accept the end of centuries of colonization, presented itself even more fragile before the two colossi of the moment – ​​USA and USSR.

With the end of the so-called cold war, NATO maintained its existence, expanded its geographic scope with the integration of the countries of the extinct Warsaw Pact, with military interventions in the Balkans and, outside the European scope, in Libya, the Sahel and in Afghanistan. The US military and political dominance in the European scenario also represents the guarantee of a captive market for the enormous North American weaponry production; It keeps the political influence of the US west of the Russian border and, the Mediterranean; and, it also intends to contain the penetration of China's commercial and political influence in all corners of the planet (see map at the end of the text) .

The combined military spending of the USA, France, Great Britain and Germany in 2020 was $942,700 million of which $778,000 million is for the US and, knowing that the use of such resources is widespread across the planet and not just in Europe. Russia's military spending was $61,700 million, certainly not just centered on the European scene . And China, for its part, spent $ 252,000 million, concentered in the Far East.

Other factors draw the European underage Euro failed to supplant the dollar as the global currency, the renminbi Chinese also did not and, the pound is a shadow of its past. It is not strange that Europe shows itself as an exporting power (despite its glaring internal inequalities) but with a reduced capacity for intervention in the global political chessboard. It remains, therefore, the situation of a Europe as a US base for the strategic area of the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean, counting even the US with the political and economic disintegration of the space stretching from Lebanon to Mesopotamia and the sea of Oman, encompassing there, obviously the Persian Gulf [3]; and, above all, with the support of the faithful Zionist entity. In short, the US retains its strategic control over Europe; and this highlights  its political minority focusing on bureaucratic minutiae, leaving the distance global leadership marked at Lepanto (1571) and, consolidated in the second siege of Vienna (1683).

A major change is underway coming from East Asia, after a first phase led by the economic performance of Japan and South Korea, countries that have continued since the end of World War II under the protectorate of the USA (as in Europe with the presence of NATO ) although not dispensing with high military costs; those two countries in 2020 spent with the armed forces a little less than $ 50,000 M each.

This militaristic fad that characterizes the US, with bases and fleets around the world, with the involvement in wars and astonishing destruction, made the US totally distanced from the creation, in 2014 of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB); or, in 2020, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership ( RCEP) which includes countries militarily protected by the USA (South Korea and Japan) or, under its political influence (Australia and New Zealand) and in which India did not want to participate… by while, during the consulate of the Hindu fanatic, Modi. History records that trade, exchanges, bring peoples together, promote cultural interactions and constitute an enormous instrument of economic development, unlike militarism; as can be seen in the following table.

    Percentage of world GDP (in terms of purchasing power parity )

 

1980

1990

2000

2010

2015

2020 (est)

EU

30.2

27.6

23.7

19.0

16.9

15.6

USA

21.9

22.1

20.7

16.8

15.8

14.7

China

2.3

4.1

7.5

13.9

17.3

19.0

                                          Source: IMF - Economic Outlook 2016

In 2020, the Chinese economic power meant that the EU has become China as its biggest trading partner, sending the US for second place; the way both countries faced the coronavirus outbreak reveals the decay of the US and its replacement by China as the world's main economy .


The relationship that will be established in Euro-Asia involves several aspects. One is the strengthening of Russia as a vital link between East Asia and Europe; a link that could be practiced across the Arctic. Another is a development of the Russian gas supply to Germany via the Baltic, in the face of US bitterness.

A third aspect is the establishment of several sections of the Silk Road, integrating the countries of Central Asia and the Muslim countries of the Near and Middle East, through  high speed trains, an area in which China has a high performance, as it reveals below. According to Keith Bradsher of the New York Times, in 2012, China inaugurated a high-speed rail line that runs 2298 km between Beijing and Guangzou, with 35 stops in ten hours; transposed to Europe, this infrastructure would make a London-Belgrade journey in… eight hours. The above distance is equivalent to the distance between New York and Key West, in South Florida; however, a current, slightly shorter rail route (New York/Miami) is now completed in … 30 hours of travel. Such developments in China as in Europe may offer diversified routes for transactions between Europe and the East and include the countries of the aforementioned ASEAN and the East coast of Africa.

Taking into account the population of the “European Peninsula”, Eurasian integration (for the time being, excluding India) goes beyond 2500 M people connected by a continuous and diverse continental mass, culturally and in terms of living or upbringing of wealth.

A war in Europe with a global dimension is not to be expected. The US military presence was justified for nearly half a century with the existence of the USSR and the Warsaw Pact. The extinction of the latter would have been a good opportunity for the burial of military alliances; however, NATO continues to exist, happy to have encompassed the Balkan countries; and hoping, after the inclusion of the countries of the extinct Comecon, to encircle the Russian borders in Ukraine and the Caucasus .

After the end of the Cold War, the US, with or without the NATO mask, waged wars in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, invaded Libya and Afghanistan, armed ISIS to destabilize Syria and Iraq, with the strengthening of the connection to the monarchies Gulf to isolate Iran and, develop the Zionist cancer the exact extent of the Palestinian people crushing. The US continues to be present in Africa conflicts, keeping the seat of its Africom, located in Stuttgart (!), a showing of their role as strange entity among the peoples of the continent; and including, among other auxiliaries, also in Africa, Portuguese mercenaries.

The militarized bet of the USA is a real dementia, especially when taking into account the degree of poverty of a large part of its population and its deficiencies in terms of infrastructure, as exemplified above. Its military presence in Europe continues to use and reproduce the Cold War scenario, attributing to Russia an economic and military power it does not have. Russia has only 150 million inhabitants and its military spending is more than twelve times less than that of the USA. 

.

Where there seems to be a lot of homogeneity among EU members is in strategic subservience to NATO, with the acceptance of US leadership[4]. The EU seems to want to keep the US with one foot in Europe, to avoid a total immersion of the European Peninsula in the infrastructure of the Silk Road, the implementation of which will keep the US fleets in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, which tend to be obsolete. from a strategic point of view, with the increasing relevance of land routes in the connection between the East, Central Asia and Europe. China's economic strength, combined with its demographic strength (more than double that of the EU countries) promises to give Europe a second place. This marginalization, in the past, was very evident in Bretton Woods, with the segmentation of Europe into West and East, with the presence of military bases of occupying powers and, with bloody decolonizations (Algeria, Vietnam and Portuguese colonies).

What role will Europe have in the medium or long term?

·           Regional economic power without a relevant role in international politics inserted, without protagonism, in the strategic confrontation China/USA?

·           As for China, Europe will seek a relationship of mutual economic advantages by joining the planned logistical corridors for whose construction most European countries have joined (the AIIB mentioned above);

·           Maintenance of current and glaring regional inequalities within the EU susceptible to deviant political positions, such as what the GB decided with its Brexit? And enhancers of diversified cleavages, facilitated by the great diversity of cultures and recent historical frameworks?

A preference as a subordinate ally of the USA whose relative decay is evident, as observed in the management of the pandemic, in the huge pockets of poverty, for the political and social problems resulting from an ancestral importance given to “race”? A nation-state that spends as much on armaments as all the others and that forces its allies to buy what they need to maintain its huge and influential military-industrial complex?

This and other texts in:

http://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/ 

http://www.slideshare.net/durgarrai/documents                               

      https://pt.scribd.com/uploads                

[1] An exemplary case lived in Portugal is related to the Volkswagen factory in Palmela, whose genesis is interesting to be known. In the last years of the fascist regime (ended 1974), it was intended to place as the centerpiece of industrial investment the port of Sines with petrochemical facilities and as an interface for large oil tankers coming from the Middle East via the Cape route, since the Suez was closed after the war of 1967 between Egypt and the Zionist entity occupant of Palestine; and, on the other hand, to install large shipyards for shipbuilding/repair and an area of ​​chemistry in the Setúbal Peninsula. As the Suez Canal reopened in 1973, the entire project became meaningless and the facilities were eventually nationalized in 1975, after the fall of the fascist regime. This change came to be harshly reflected in that Peninsula, an area then marked by the most radical activism in the country. Volkswagen ended up establishing a factory in the region (1991), with community funds financing means of communication, training for workers, a hospital, becoming one of the main exporters in the country and an anchor for several supplier companies.

[2] On a supposed exit of Portugal from the euro zone, see:

http://grazia-tanta.blogspot.pt/2017/05/europa-periferias-e-desastres.html

http://grazia-tanta.blogspot.pt/2016/06/centro-e-periferias-3-portugal-uma.html

http://grazia-tanta.blogspot.pt/2016/06/centro-e-periferias-na-europa-2.html

http://grazia-tanta.blogspot.pt/2016/06/centro-e-periferias-3-portugal-uma.html

[3] Not forgetting Afghanistan, where the US and its allies have stood against the Taliban and in favor of the opium trade. It would be unfair to forget the importance of Portuguese mercenaries guarding the airport in Kabul. The big Bagram base will see the US evacuation. Throughout this time, Chinese and Indians have established businesses in the country.

 

[4] See the European commitment to the tension of relations with Russia or Turkey, knowing that these countries are essential pieces in a Eurasian integration that is at the door. The relevance given to Navalny or to the Belarusian trapped in a plane diverted to Minsk is frankly overblown, giving rise to sanctions that prove useless or ridiculous but satisfy the interests of the USA in maintaining disagreements in the European space. On the other hand, the EU offers troops to frame Africom's activity in the Sahel or Afghanistan and keeps Assange imprisoned, under a curtain of silence because he was the protagonist, years ago, in the dissemination of US war crimes. In European politics, the case of the plane diverted to Minsk serves to make us forget the occupation of Palestine and the most recent crimes of Zionism against the Palestinian people. The political dwarves who run Europe can only see in Africa and Asia refugees and immigrants arriving in Lesbos, Pantelleria or Ceuta, ready for a total precariousness of life and pushing wage levels down.

sábado, 5 de junho de 2021

Emigrations, immigrations, precarious lives

Today's world is the product of immense migrations - through invasions or small groups - that have contributed to the enrichment of the human species, in genetic and cultural terms. To speak of homelands and nation-states is nonsense that suits some. Symbolically, we are all Lucy's grandchildren. 

Summary 

1 - Immigrants and emigrants, all natives of the planet 

2 - Native population and resident foreigners 

<<<<<<<<<< ||||| >>>>>>>>>> 

 1 - Immigrants and emigrants, all natives of the planet

If the Earth is just one. If Humanity is totally composed of homo sapiens, the divisions between states are artificial, transitory and, the borders result from wars and bloodbaths, based on seigneurial ambitions. 

As a rule, borders do not divide anything substantial, of necessary; they are only the application of ephemeral property rights, successive spheres of property, with humans divided between owners and not owners, with the former controlling the State, an authoritarian and repressive structure to enforce that order, that convenient exclusion, on a political level that, today, usually and with a serious look, they call … democracy !

Democracy is a concept that in its long history, from the times of ancient Athens, essentially suffered the repudiation or tampering, by groups or dominant social classes, manager of the property, whose access or enjoyment refuse or affect the great majority. These groups always knew how to surround gunmen, judges, bureaucrats, police, armies and, more recently, the figure of plumitivos , paid by the owners of the newspapers to maintain a convenient segmentation of people between "top" and "low". 

When nation-states were constituted, their central concern was the fixation of their population, subordinated, not only to their masters, but later, to the capitalists; and, within this preoccupation, there was the refusal and antagonism towards other nation-states, with disastrous implications for their natural ones. 

The ability to transform nature through work, the creativity of peoples, the collective interaction as a matrix for the production of goods and services, they have become, more and more, a desire for the control of the elites and, the acceptance of that appropriation by those in lower positions. Firstly, by the nobles, for simple tasks, common in agricultural societies; then, by the capitalists, for more complex tasks, inherent to industry work; and later, in services, becoming increasingly diverse, absorbing more and more labor. 

In a first phase, the services included, among others, education, health, transport, postal services, personal services to the rich, military service, sexual services and the filling of the state machinery. Later, the conflict inherent to the densification of economic and personal relationship developed judicial apparatuses, cohorts of bureaucrats and policemen. On the other hand, vocational training and school reached the entire population, contributing to the encystment of a diversified state apparatus, immense and invasive, filled by career bureaucrats, entwined with the political class. 

The consolidation of nation-states corresponded to the affirmation of nationalism; nationality started to be a central element of distinction between people born and raised in a given nation-state and, those coming from other territories. To the former all the rights and duties inherent to their nature as “nationals” and the non-nationals, especially immigrants, with fewer rights and more duties. This distinction has made immigrants victims of distancing, adversity and marginalization, oriented towards the lowest paid functions, taking advantage of their situations as foreigners, pointed out as competitors by the less qualified indigenous people.

The distinctions are shown, often, under the form of racism, related to the color of skin, religious creed, national origin; there, the darker loses against the lighter one, the Muslim gains in suspicion in the face of Christian overtones; and, a being from Northern Europe deserves more respect than a Balkan. As it is evident, all these social or legal disqualifications aim to create a more submissive, poorer, undemanding but, necessary workforce for the viability of the existence of the less qualified segments of the employers. 

 The current capitalism works "a tous les azimuths", using or not, difficulties in the boundaries and according to the relationship between the exporting country and importing country, the goods characterization, including work or technology; and, in the context of these aspects, if more or less import/export of labor is needed. For example, in USA an immigration of Europeans is more considered than that of the poor who cross Rio Grande risking his life crossing Mexican border (and Trump's wall) in order to survive clandestinely by accepting low wages and the absence of rights. 

Capitalism, in a time of highly globalized competition, generates and exploits these differences between natives and immigrants, not only in terms of income and rights, but also exploiting rivalries, antagonisms and inventing anathemas against chosen groups. But it becomes much more tolerant for retired people looking to live in a warmer climate. And, above all, for well-heeled oligarchs who pay big money to be able to live peacefully on their dirty money in complacent countries, where the presence of corrupt people in the government is customary. Let us remember the so-called “gold visas” and the chain of scoundrels linked to them, in Portugal – Paulo Portas, Miguel Macedo and the sect installed in the extinct SEF – Foreigners and Borders Service. 

Agrarian, pre-capitalist societies, even when they built rich temples and palaces, used slavery on a scale far below that practiced by European countries involved in the conquest and occupation of lands overseas, from the 16th century onwards. The needs for labor in the European colonies of America are evident in the typologies of their populations today and in the genocide suffered by the original peoples of the Caribbean, Brazil or the USA. Interestingly, there are about 4500 years ago, the construction of the Egyptian pyramids was made by employees, not by slaves, without the use of the wheel (!) but, with the presence of caregivers for the event of accident at work and, accountants to the measurement of working times! 

It is known that Lisbon, in the sixteenth century, had a huge portion of the population of African slaves and even black youth groups "specialized" to get pregnant women slaves; subsequenly the owners get the profit from the sale of the offspring, as slaves, of course, under a factory logic... Very probably those gentlemen would be fervent Christians... 

In the European context of the same century, the forced emigration of Muslims and Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, orchestrated by the kings, with the appropriation of property expelled and, the children… to be christianized. Columbus and Magellan carried out their exploits as emigrants in Spanish lands. Spinoza was the grandson of Portuguese emigrants and David Ricardo had in his ancestors an Iberian origin. Handel emigrated clandestinely to England where he was offered a far more interesting contract than in his native Saxony. The potato crisis in Ireland, in the 19th century, forced an important part of the Irish to emigrate to the USA; and, in Germany, whoever could, emigrated to escape the Hitlerian delirium. Italian and German emigrants of recent date fought against Hitler and Mussolini in the US army. Even when the memory is lost, History was designed by emigrants; we are all emigrants. 

In more recent times, the economic disruption that capitalism causes in Africa, forces an emigration fraught with great risks to enter Europe, where reception is difficult, with people filling jobs with worse pay and lesser rights. The escape from Syria and Iraq, unstructured countries by the intervention of the so-called West (via ISIS) and under the baton of peace Nobel, Obama, sent millions of people into Europe. Receiving refugees is receiving cheap labour but there are quantitative limits; and so EU pays Turkey to retain four million potential migrants bound for Europe. In turn, Trump has erected a wall guarded and electrified to prevent the arrival of people coming from the South, impoverished by the action of American multinationals, by the elite of Creoles, etc...

In current times, the great facility in the circulation of information and bodies, produced by technologies, has made emigration commonplace within the European community. The inequalities between the various countries became enormous, which did not happen until the integration of Greece in 1981, followed by Spain, Portugal and, later, with the enlargements to the East, resulting from the dismantling of Comecon and Yugoslavia. Well-known inequalities as we have highlighted recently.

This context of mobility leaves to the countries of migrants origin the costs of technique formation, unbalances their age pyramids, fattening the upper echelons and tapering those nearby base; and, it offers to the destination countries, skilled labor or, devalued, precarious, when not despising the immigrants, and as object of violence from xenophobes and neo-nazis. 

2 - Native population and resident foreigners

Let us observe the size and evolution, in recent years, of the population of European countries and the share of foreigners who live in each one of them, marking the cases of demographic reduction with a distinct color.

Europe -  Total population and share of resident foreigners

 

thousands

foreign residents 

      (% of total

 

var. native pop.  2009/19  (thousands)

var. foreign pop. 2009/19 (thousands)

 

2009

2014

2019

2009

2014

2019

Belgique

10 753

11 181

11 456

9,4

11,1

12,5

703

429

Bulgarie

7 467

7 246

7 000

0,5

0,8

1,5

-467

69

Tchéquie

10 426

10 512

10 694

3,9

4,1

5,5

268

179

Danemark

5 511

5 627

5 806

5,8

7,1

9,3

295

217

Allemagne

82 002

80 767

83 019

8,8

8,7

12,5

1 017

3212

Estonie

1 336

1 316

1 325

16,1

14,8

15,1

-11

-15

Irlande

4 521

4 638

4 904

12,8

11,4

13,1

383

64

Grèce

11 095

10 927

10 725

8,4

7,8

8,5

-370

-21

Espagne

46 239

46 512

46 937

11,6

10,1

11,1

698

-160

France

64 350

66 166

67 178

5,8

6,4

7,6

2 828

1387

Croatie

4 310

4 247

4 076

-

0,7

2,1

-234

55

Italie

59 001

60 783

60 360

5,8

8,1

8,3

1 359

1637

Chypre

797

858

876

15,6

18,6

18,4

79

36

Lettonie

2 163

2 001

1 920

17,7

15,2

13,6

-243

-122

Lituanie

3 184

2 943

2 794

1,0

0,7

2,4

-390

35

Luxembourg

494

550

614

43,5

45,3

48,3

120

81

Hongrie

10 031

9 877

9 773

1,9

1,4

2,0

-258

13

Malte

411

429

494

4,1

6,8

20,9

83

86

Pays-Bas

16 486

16 829

17 282

3,9

4,4

6,7

796

518

Autriche

8 335

8 508

8 859

10,3

12,5

16,6

524

618

Pologne

38 136

38 018

37 973

0,2

0,3

0,9

-163

283

Portugal

10 563

10 427

10 277

4,2

3,8

5,7

-286

150

Roumanie

20 440

19 947

19 414

-

0,4

0,7

-1 026

66

Slovénie

2 032

2 061

2 081

3,5

4,7

7,5

49

86

Slovaquie

5 382

5 416

5 450

1,1

1,1

1,4

68

18

Finlande

5 326

5 451

5 518

2,7

3,8

4,8

192

124

Suède

9 256

9 645

10 230

5,9

7,1

9,1

974

380

Islande

319

326

357

7,6

7,0

13,8

38

25

Liechtenstein

36

37

38

32,7

33,8

34,9

2

1

Norvège

4 799

5 108

5 328

6,3

9,4

11,3

529

301

Suisse

7 702

8 140

8 545

21,7

23,8

25,4

843

504

Royaume-Uni

62 042

64 351

66 647

6,8

7,8

9,3

4 605

1928

Total

514 945

520 844

527 950

6,5

7,0

8,6

13 005

12290

In 2014, comparing to 2009, the population of European countries increased by 5.9 million people and 7.1 million in the following five years. 

In 2014 all countries with population breaks are Baltic or Balkan; and Germany (minus 1.2 million) and Portugal are the only exceptions to those locations. Conversely, the main contributors to the demographic increase were the UK, France and Italy. 

In 2019, the major contributors to the demographic increase are again the United Kingdom and France, and also Germany, with Romania and Italy appearing with the main population declines.

Portugal is the only country in Western Europe to show demographic declines in both periods, with a total of 286,000 inhabitants, with a population size very close to Sweden, which in 2009 had a population lower by 1.3 million.

In absolute numbers and in the considered decade, the main falls in the native population are registered in Romania (just over one million), followed by Bulgaria, Lithuania and Greece. Conversely, the largest population increases in 2009/19 take place in the United Kingdom (4.6 million), followed by France, Italy, Sweden and the Netherlands. 

As for immigrants in European countries in 2009/19, the main flows were directed to Germany (3.2 million people), United Kingdom, France and Italy, knowing that in the first and the last of these countries, the arrival of refugees and migrants was due to the economic and political disruption promoted in Libya, Iraq and Syria; in addition to the actions of ISIS, armed by the US with money coming from the Gulf sultans. Those four countries incorporated 2/3 of the net increase in immigrants in that period.

The decreases in the immigrant population are registered in Spain (160 thousand), Latvia (122 thousand) and also Greece and Estonia, all with strong economic and financial difficulties during part of the decade.

The share of foreigners settled in European countries (including, in each nation-state, people coming from other European backgrounds) is growing, especially in the most recent period, since in 2009/14 the consequences of the financial crisis limited emigration. Thus, population coming from outside in Europe went from 6.5% in 2009 to 7% five years later but, reaching 8.6% in 2019, a result from the economic recovery related to the financial crisis.

Cyprus and Latvia are the only countries that reduced the weight of the foreign population, with a marginal importance in the case of the former; Latvia registers one continuous decrease of the weight of foreign or immigrant population.

The volume of foreign residents is particularly high (and growing) in Luxembourg, approaching half of the population (48.3%), followed by Liechtenstein, although with a very small total population, and Switzerland, where ¼ of the population has a outsider origin in 2019. Otherwise, in 2019, the smallest shares of resident foreigners are observed in Romania (0.7%), Slovakia (1.4%) and Bulgaria (1.5%). 

For all European countries, the increase in the indigenous population in 2009/19 surpasses that of the foreign population, but only by a total of 715 thousand, which reveals the enormous importance of the emigrant population in the demographic evolution in those ten years. In more detailed terms, several situations are observed; 

• Cases of increase in the indigenous population greater than the increase of immigrants – Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Iceland, Switzerland; 

• Cases of increases in indigenous population less than the verified to immigrants - France, Ireland, Spain, Cyprus, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden, Norway, United Kingdom; 

• Cases of increase in the indigenous population and reduction of immigrants – Germany, Malta, Austria, Slovenia; 

• Cases of fall in the indigenous population smaller than the breaking of immigrants - Bulgaria, Greece, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, Romania; 

• Cases of fall in indigenous population greater than the reduction in immigrants - Italy 

As we have observed in other texts[1], Europe is a space of great inequalities; among the various nation-states, some are rich, others… not so much. Within each one, there is showed the presence of immigrants whose origin goes far beyond the European scene; those whose size is proportional to the degree of wealth of the host country; and the departure of emigrants from the various nation-states to other European countries but also outside Europe. Will the world walk towards being a great village? 

This and other texts in: 

http://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/ 

http://www.slideshare.net/durgarrai/documents 

https://pt.scribd.com/uploads ________________________________________   

[1] Demography in Europe – a world of inequalities (2015-2020) http://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2021/04/demografia-na-europa-um-mundo-de.html 

The evolution of wealth in Europe (2000/19) https://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2020/08/a-evolucao-da-riqueza-na-europa-200019.html 

Portrait of inequalities in Europe - 1995/2018 (concl) https://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2020/02/retrato-das-desigualdades-na-europa.html 

Inequalities in demographic dynamics in the Iberian Peninsula (1990/2019) https://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2020/07/desigualdades-na-dinamica-demografica.html

Portugal 2020, a poor and imprisoned people https://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2020/04/portugal-2020-um-povo-pobre-e.html 

Europe - School difficulties for young people under 15 years old https://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2019/11/europa-dificuldades-escolares-de-jovens.html

School leaving in Europe (2000-2018) - 2nd part https://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2019/08/o-abandono-escolar-na-europa-2000-2018.html 

Center and peripheries in Europe (2) - Portugal, a case of peripheral disaster https://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2018/10/center-and-peripheries-in-europe-2.html 

Center and peripheries in Europe (3) - Portugal, an Iberian periphery https://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2018/10/centre-and-peripheries-3-portugal.html 

Evolution of the world population 1950/2050 - The case of Europe http://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2018/07/evolution-of-world-population-19502050_16.html 

Evolution of the world population 1950/2050 – The case of Europe https://grazia-tanta.blogspot.pt/2018/05/evolucao-da-populacao-mundial-19502050.html 

Evolution of the world population 1950/2050 - The case of Europe http://grazia-tanta.blogspot.com/2018/07/evolution-of-world-population-19502050_16.html